March 25th All Events

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March 25th, 2008 (March 25 2008)DeathRafael Azcona, Spanish screenwriter (born in 1926)
March 25th, 2008 (March 25 2008)DeathBen Carnevale, American basketball coach (born in 1915)
March 25th, 2007 (March 25 2007)DeathAndranik Margaryan, Armenian politician (born in 1951)Andranik Margaryan Quotes
March 25th, 2006 (March 25 2006)EventCapitol Hill massacre: A gunman kills six people before taking his own life at a party in Seattle s Capitol Hill neighborhood.
March 25th, 2006 (March 25 2006)EventProtesters demanding a re-election in Belarus following the rigged Belarusian presidential election, 2006 clash with riot police. Opposition leader Aleksander Kozulin is among several protesters arrested.
March 25th, 2006 (March 25 2006)DeathRocio Durcal, Spanish singer and actress (born in 1944)
March 25th, 2006 (March 25 2006)DeathRichard Fleischer, American film director (born in 1916)
March 25th, 2006 (March 25 2006)DeathBuck Owens, American singer and television personality (born in 1929)
March 25th, 2005 (March 25 2005)DeathPaul Henning, American TV/film producer and writer (born in 1911)
March 25th, 2002 (March 25 2002)DeathKenneth Wolstenholme, English football commentator (born in 1920)
March 25th, 2000 (March 25 2000)DeathHelen Martin, American actress (born in 1909)
March 25th, 1999 (March 25 1999)DeathCal Ripken, Sr., American baseball manager (born in 1936)
March 25th, 1998 (March 25 1998)DeathMax Green, Australian lawyer (born in 1952)
March 25th, 1998 (March 25 1998)DeathSteve Schiff, United States Congressman (born in 1947)
March 25th, 1996 (March 25 1996)EventAn 81-day-long standoff between the anti-government group Montana Freemen and law enforcement near Jordan, Montana, begins.
March 25th, 1996 (March 25 1996)EventThe Labour Party is founded in Turkey.
March 25th, 1996 (March 25 1996)EventThe European Union s Veterinarian Committee bans the export of British beef and its by-products as a result of mad cow disease (BSE).
March 25th, 1996 (March 25 1996)DeathJohn Snagge, British radio personality (born in 1904)
March 25th, 1995 (March 25 1995)DeathJames Coleman, American sociologist (born in 1926)
March 25th, 1995 (March 25 1995)DeathKresimir Cosic, Croatian basketball player (born in 1948)
March 25th, 1995 (March 25 1995)DeathJohn Hugenholtz, Dutch race track designer (born in 1914)John Holt Quotes
March 25th, 1994 (March 25 1994)DeathMax Petitpierre, Swiss politician and jurist (born in 1899)
March 25th, 1992 (March 25 1992)EventCosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returns to Earth after a 10-month stay aboard the Mir space station.
March 25th, 1992 (March 25 1992)DeathNancy Walker, American actress (born in 1922)
March 25th, 1991 (March 25 1991)DeathMarcel Lefebvre, French Catholic prelate (born in 1905)
March 25th, 1990 (March 25 1990)EventIn The Bronx, a fire at an illegal social club called "Happy Land" kills 87 people.
March 25th, 1989 (March 25 1989)BirthAlyson Michalka, American actress/singer
March 25th, 1989 (March 25 1989)BirthScott Sinclair, English footballer
March 25th, 1988 (March 25 1988)EventThe Candle demonstration in Bratislava is the first mass demonstration of the 1980s against the communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
March 25th, 1988 (March 25 1988)DeathRobert Joffrey, American dancer and choreographer (born in 1930)
March 25th, 1987 (March 25 1987)BirthJason Castro, American Idol contestantJason Castro Quotes
March 25th, 1987 (March 25 1987)BirthNobunari Oda, Japanese figure skater
March 25th, 1986 (March 25 1986)BirthMegan Gibson, American softball player
March 25th, 1984 (March 25 1984)BirthKatharine McPhee, American singer/actress
March 25th, 1983 (March 25 1983)DeathBob Waterfield, American football player (born in 1920)
March 25th, 1982 (March 25 1982)BirthDanica Patrick, American race car driver
March 25th, 1982 (March 25 1982)BirthSean Faris, American actor and model
March 25th, 1982 (March 25 1982)BirthSergey Yakovlev, russian musical artist and painter
March 25th, 1982 (March 25 1982)BirthAlvaro Saborio, Costa Rican footballer
March 25th, 1980 (March 25 1980)BirthCarrie Lam, Hong Kong actress
March 25th, 1980 (March 25 1980)DeathRoland Barthes, French literary critic and writer (born in 1915)
March 25th, 1980 (March 25 1980)DeathMilton H. Erickson, American psychiatrist (born in 1901)
March 25th, 1980 (March 25 1980)DeathWalter Susskind, Czech conductor (born in 1913)
March 25th, 1980 (March 25 1980)DeathJames Wright, American poet (born in 1927)
March 25th, 1979 (March 25 1979)EventThe first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, The Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.John F. Kennedy Quotes
March 25th, 1979 (March 25 1979)BirthLee Pace, American actor
March 25th, 1979 (March 25 1979)BirthNatasha Yi, American supermodel
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthFrancis Bellew, Irish Gaelic footballer
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthCha Tae-hyun, South Korean actor
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthJuvenile, American rapper
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthWladimir Klitschko, Ukrainian boxer
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthGigi Leung, Hong Kong singer/actress
March 25th, 1976 (March 25 1976)BirthBaek Ji Young, South Korean singer
March 25th, 1975 (March 25 1975)EventFaisal of Saudi Arabia is shot and killed by a mentally ill nephew.
March 25th, 1975 (March 25 1975)BirthLadislav Benysek, Czech ice hockey player
March 25th, 1975 (March 25 1975)BirthMelanie Blatt, British singer (All Saints)
March 25th, 1975 (March 25 1975)DeathKing Faisal of Saudi Arabia (born in 1906)
March 25th, 1975 (March 25 1975)DeathJuan Gaudino, Argentine racing driver (born in 1893)
March 25th, 1974 (March 25 1974)BirthLark Voorhies, American actress
March 25th, 1973 (March 25 1973)BirthAnthony Barness, English footballer
March 25th, 1973 (March 25 1973)BirthAnders Friden, Swedish singer (In Flames)
March 25th, 1971 (March 25 1971)EventBangladesh Liberation War: Beginning of Operation Searchlight of Pakistan Army against East Pakistani civilians.
March 25th, 1971 (March 25 1971)BirthCammi Granato, American ice hockey player
March 25th, 1970 (March 25 1970)BirthKari Matchett, Canadian actress
March 25th, 1969 (March 25 1969)EventDuring their honeymoon, John Lennon and Yoko Ono hold their first Bed-In for Peace in the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel (until March 31).John Lennon Quotes
March 25th, 1969 (March 25 1969)BirthDale Davis, American basketball player
March 25th, 1969 (March 25 1969)BirthCathy Dennis, English singer, songwriter, and actress
March 25th, 1969 (March 25 1969)DeathMax Eastman, American writer (born in 1883)
March 25th, 1969 (March 25 1969)DeathBilly Cotton, British bandleader & entertainer (born in 1889)
March 25th, 1967 (March 25 1967)BirthMatthew Barney, American media artist
March 25th, 1967 (March 25 1967)BirthDebi Thomas, American figure skater
March 25th, 1967 (March 25 1967)BirthDoug Stanhope, American comedian
March 25th, 1967 (March 25 1967)DeathRenato Cellini, Italian conductor (b.c.1913)
March 25th, 1966 (March 25 1966)BirthTom Glavine, American baseball player
March 25th, 1966 (March 25 1966)BirthJeff Healey, Canadian guitarist (died in 2008)
March 25th, 1966 (March 25 1966)BirthTatjana Patitz, German supermodel
March 25th, 1966 (March 25 1966)BirthAnton Rogan, Irish footballer
March 25th, 1965 (March 25 1965)EventCivil rights activists led by Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully complete their 4-day 50-mile march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama.Martin Luther Quotes
March 25th, 1965 (March 25 1965)BirthSarah Jessica Parker, American actress
March 25th, 1965 (March 25 1965)BirthAvery Johnson, American basketball player and coach
March 25th, 1965 (March 25 1965)BirthStefka Kostadinova, Bulgarian high jumper
March 25th, 1964 (March 25 1964)BirthLisa Gay Hamilton, American actress
March 25th, 1964 (March 25 1964)BirthAlex Solis, Panamanian jockey
March 25th, 1964 (March 25 1964)BirthKen Wregget, Canadian ice hockey player
March 25th, 1962 (March 25 1962)BirthMarcia Cross, American actress
March 25th, 1961 (March 25 1961)BirthFred Goss, American actor, comedian, and writer
March 25th, 1960 (March 25 1960)BirthIdy Chan Yuk-Lin, Hong Kong actress
March 25th, 1960 (March 25 1960)BirthSteve Norman, British saxophonist (Spandau Ballet)
March 25th, 1960 (March 25 1960)BirthPeter O Brien, Australian actor
March 25th, 1960 (March 25 1960)BirthHaywood Nelson, American actor
March 25th, 1960 (March 25 1960)BirthBrenda Strong, American actress
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)EventCanada s Avro Arrow makes its first flight.
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)BirthSisy Chen, Taiwanese politician and television commentator
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)BirthJames McDaniel, American actor
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)BirthRay Tanner, American college baseball coach
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)BirthAsa Torstensson, Swedish politician
March 25th, 1958 (March 25 1958)DeathTom Brown, American musician (born in 1888)
March 25th, 1957 (March 25 1957)EventThe European Economic Community is established (West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg).
March 25th, 1957 (March 25 1957)BirthJim Uhls, American screenwriter
March 25th, 1957 (March 25 1957)DeathMax Ophuls, German director and writer (born in 1902)
March 25th, 1956 (March 25 1956)BirthMatthew Garber, English actor (died in 1977)
March 25th, 1955 (March 25 1955)EventUnited States Customs seizes copies of Allen Ginsberg s poem "Howl" as obscene.Tom Ze Quotes
March 25th, 1955 (March 25 1955)BirthDaniel Boulud, French chef and restaurateur
March 25th, 1955 (March 25 1955)BirthLee Mazzilli, American baseball player
March 25th, 1954 (March 25 1954)BirthElli Stai, Greek journalist and TV presenter
March 25th, 1954 (March 25 1954)BirthThom Loverro, American sportswriter
March 25th, 1952 (March 25 1952)BirthAntanas Mockus, Colombian mathematician
March 25th, 1951 (March 25 1951)DeathEddie Collins, American baseball player (born in 1887)
March 25th, 1950 (March 25 1950)BirthChuck Greenberg, American musician (Shadowfax) (died in 1995)Chuck D Quotes
March 25th, 1949 (March 25 1949)EventThe extensive deportation campaign known as March deportation is conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to force collectivisation by way of terror. The Soviet authorities deported more than 92,000 people from Baltics to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
March 25th, 1948 (March 25 1948)BirthBonnie Bedelia, American actress Bede Quotes
March 25th, 1948 (March 25 1948)BirthLynn Faulds Wood, Scottish television presenter
March 25th, 1947 (March 25 1947)EventAn explosion in a coalmine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111.
March 25th, 1947 (March 25 1947)BirthElton John, English singer and songwriter
March 25th, 1946 (March 25 1946)BirthCliff Balsam, English footballer
March 25th, 1946 (March 25 1946)BirthStephen Hunter, American author
March 25th, 1946 (March 25 1946)BirthMaurice Krafft, French vulcanologist (died in 1991)
March 25th, 1946 (March 25 1946)BirthGerard John Schaefer, American serial killer (died in 1995)
March 25th, 1943 (March 25 1943)BirthPaul Michael Glaser, American actor
March 25th, 1942 (March 25 1942)BirthAretha Franklin, American singer
March 25th, 1942 (March 25 1942)BirthRichard O Brien, English actor and writer
March 25th, 1942 (March 25 1942)BirthKim Woodburn, English television personality
March 25th, 1941 (March 25 1941)EventThe Kingdom of Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers with the signing of the Tripartite Pact.
March 25th, 1941 (March 25 1941)BirthGudmund Hernes, Norwegian politician
March 25th, 1940 (March 25 1940)BirthAnita Bryant, American singer
March 25th, 1939 (March 25 1939)EventCardinal Eugenio Pacelli becomes Pope Pius XII.
March 25th, 1939 (March 25 1939)BirthToni Cade Bambara, American author (died in 1995)
March 25th, 1938 (March 25 1938)BirthHoyt Axton, American actor and country music singer-songwriter (died in 1999)
March 25th, 1938 (March 25 1938)BirthFritz d Orey, Brazilian racing driver
March 25th, 1937 (March 25 1937)BirthTom Monaghan, founder of Dominos pizza
March 25th, 1935 (March 25 1935)BirthFlash Elorde, Filipino boxer
March 25th, 1934 (March 25 1934)BirthJohnny Burnette, American singer (died in 1964)
March 25th, 1934 (March 25 1934)BirthGloria Steinem, American feminist and publisherGloria Steinem Quotes
March 25th, 1932 (March 25 1932)BirthGene Shalit, American film critic
March 25th, 1931 (March 25 1931)EventThe Scottsboro Boys are arrested in Alabama and charged with rape.
March 25th, 1931 (March 25 1931)BirthPaul Motian, American jazz drummer and composer
March 25th, 1929 (March 25 1929)BirthWim van Est, Dutch cyclist (died in 2003)
March 25th, 1928 (March 25 1928)BirthJim Lovell, American astronaut
March 25th, 1926 (March 25 1926)BirthLaszlo Papp, Hungarian boxer (died in 2003)
March 25th, 1926 (March 25 1926)BirthJaime Sabines, Mexican poet (died in 1999)
March 25th, 1925 (March 25 1925)BirthFlannery O Connor, American author (died in 1964)
March 25th, 1923 (March 25 1923)BirthBonnie Guitar, American singer
March 25th, 1922 (March 25 1922)BirthEileen Ford, American model agency executive
March 25th, 1921 (March 25 1921)BirthNancy Kelly, American actress (died in 1995)
March 25th, 1921 (March 25 1921)BirthSimone Signoret, French actress (died in 1985)
March 25th, 1921 (March 25 1921)BirthAlexandra of Greece and Denmark, Queen of Yugoslavia (died in 1993)
March 25th, 1920 (March 25 1920)BirthPatrick Troughton, English actor (died in 1987)
March 25th, 1920 (March 25 1920)BirthArthur Wint, Jamaican runner (died in 1992)
March 25th, 1918 (March 25 1918)EventThe Belarusian People s Republic is established.
March 25th, 1918 (March 25 1918)BirthHoward Cosell, American sports reporter (died in 1995)Howard Cosell Quotes
March 25th, 1918 (March 25 1918)DeathClaude Debussy, French composer (born in 1862)
March 25th, 1917 (March 25 1917)EventThe Georgian Orthodox Church restores its autocephaly abolished by Imperial Russia in 1811.
March 25th, 1917 (March 25 1917)DeathElizabeth Storrs Mead, American educator (born in 1832)
March 25th, 1917 (March 25 1917)DeathSpyros Samaras, Greek composer (born in 1861)
March 25th, 1914 (March 25 1914)BirthNorman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace PrizeNorman Borlaug Quotes
March 25th, 1914 (March 25 1914)DeathFrederic Mistral, French poet, Nobel Prize laureate (born in 1830)
March 25th, 1913 (March 25 1913)BirthSir Reo Stakis, Anglo-Cypriot hotel magnate (died in 2001)
March 25th, 1912 (March 25 1912)BirthJean Vilar, French stage and film actor (died in 1971)
March 25th, 1911 (March 25 1911)EventIn New York City, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire kills 146 garment workers.
March 25th, 1911 (March 25 1911)BirthJack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (died in 1967)
March 25th, 1910 (March 25 1910)BirthMagda Olivero, Italian soprano
March 25th, 1908 (March 25 1908)EventClube Atletico Mineiro, Founded in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
March 25th, 1908 (March 25 1908)BirthHelmut Kautner, German actor and director (died in 1980)
March 25th, 1908 (March 25 1908)BirthDavid Lean, English film director (died in 1991)
March 25th, 1908 (March 25 1908)DeathDurham Stevens, American diplomat (born in 1851)
March 25th, 1906 (March 25 1906)BirthA.J.P. Taylor, British historian (died in 1990)
March 25th, 1906 (March 25 1906)BirthJean Sablon, French singer (died in 1994)
March 25th, 1903 (March 25 1903)EventRacing Club de Avellaneda, one of the big five of Argentina, is founded.
March 25th, 1903 (March 25 1903)BirthNahum Norbert Glatzer, Jewish-American scholar (died in 1990)
March 25th, 1903 (March 25 1903)BirthFrankie Carle, American pianist and bandleader (died in 2001)
March 25th, 1901 (March 25 1901)BirthEd Begley, American actor (died in 1970)
March 25th, 1899 (March 25 1899)BirthBurt Munro, New Zealand motorcycle racer (died in 1978)
March 25th, 1897 (March 25 1897)BirthJohn Laurie, Scottish actor (died in 1980)John Scott Quotes
March 25th, 1895 (March 25 1895)BirthSiegfried Handloser, German physician (died in 1954)
March 25th, 1894 (March 25 1894)EventCoxey s Army, the first significant American protest march, departs Massillon, Ohio for Washington D.C.
March 25th, 1892 (March 25 1892)BirthAndy Clyde, American actor (died in 1967)
March 25th, 1886 (March 25 1886)BirthAthenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople (died in 1972)
March 25th, 1884 (March 25 1884)BirthGeorges Imbert, Alsatian chemist (died in 1950)
March 25th, 1881 (March 25 1881)BirthBela Bartok, Hungarian composer (died in 1945)
March 25th, 1881 (March 25 1881)BirthMary Gladys Webb, English writer (died in 1927)
March 25th, 1877 (March 25 1877)BirthWalter Little, Canadian politician (died in 1961)
March 25th, 1873 (March 25 1873)BirthRudolf Rocker, German anarchist (died in 1958)
March 25th, 1873 (March 25 1873)DeathWilhelm Marstrand, Danish painter (born in 1810)
March 25th, 1868 (March 25 1868)BirthWilliam Lockwood, English cricketer (died in 1932)
March 25th, 1867 (March 25 1867)BirthArturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, (died in 1957)
March 25th, 1865 (March 25 1865)EventAmerican Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union in a bloody battle.
March 25th, 1863 (March 25 1863)BirthSimon Flexner, American pathologist (died in 1946)
March 25th, 1860 (March 25 1860)DeathJames Braid, Scottish surgeon (born in 1795)
March 25th, 1840 (March 25 1840)BirthMyles Keogh, U.S. Soldier in U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment & Irish Soldier of Fortune (died in 1876)
March 25th, 1824 (March 25 1824)BirthClinton L. Merriam, American politician (died in 1900)
March 25th, 1821 (March 25 1821)Event(Julian Calendar) Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the Greek War of Independence. Julian Quotes
March 25th, 1818 (March 25 1818)DeathCaspar Wessel, Danish mathematician (born in 1745)
March 25th, 1811 (March 25 1811)EventPercy Bysshe Shelley is expelled from the University of Oxford for his publication of the pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism.Percy Bysshe Shelley Quotes
March 25th, 1807 (March 25 1807)EventThe Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
March 25th, 1807 (March 25 1807)EventThe Swansea and Mumbles Railway, then known as the Oystermouth Railway, becomes the first passenger carrying railway in the world.
March 25th, 1802 (March 25 1802)EventThe Treaty of Amiens is signed as a "Definitive Treaty of Peace" between France and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
March 25th, 1801 (March 25 1801)DeathNovalis, German poet (born in 1772) Novalis Quotes
March 25th, 1800 (March 25 1800)BirthHeinrich von Dechsen, German geologist (died in 1889)
March 25th, 1782 (March 25 1782)BirthCaroline Bonaparte, Queen of Naples (died in 1839)
March 25th, 1767 (March 25 1767)BirthJoachim Murat, King of Naples (died in 1815)
March 25th, 1751 (March 25 1751)DeathFrederick I of Sweden (born in 1676)
March 25th, 1738 (March 25 1738)DeathTurlough O Carolan, Irish harper and composer (born in 1670)
March 25th, 1736 (March 25 1736)DeathNicholas Hawksmoor, British architect
March 25th, 1712 (March 25 1712)DeathNehemiah Grew, English naturalist (born in 1641)
March 25th, 1699 (March 25 1699)BirthJohann Adolph Hasse, German composer (died in 1783)
March 25th, 1661 (March 25 1661)BirthPaul de Rapin, French historian (died in 1725)
March 25th, 1655 (March 25 1655)EventSaturn s largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens.Christian Huygens Quotes
March 25th, 1643 (March 25 1643)BirthLouis Moreri, French encylopedist (died in 1680)
March 25th, 1634 (March 25 1634)EventThe first settlers arrive in Maryland.
March 25th, 1625 (March 25 1625)DeathGiambattista Marini, Italian poet (born in 1569)
March 25th, 1620 (March 25 1620)DeathJohannes Nucius, German composer
March 25th, 1609 (March 25 1609)DeathOlaus Martini, Swedish Archbishop of Uppsala (born in 1557)
March 25th, 1603 (March 25 1603)DeathIkoma Chikamasa, Japanese warlord (born in 1526)
March 25th, 1593 (March 25 1593)BirthJean de Brebeuf, French Jesuit missionary (died in 1649)
March 25th, 1584 (March 25 1584)EventSir Walter Raleigh is granted a patent to exploit Virginia.Sir Walter Raleigh Quotes
March 25th, 1561 (March 25 1561)DeathConrad Lycosthenes, French-born German philosopher and encyclopedist (born in 1518) Philo Quotes
March 25th, 1558 (March 25 1558)DeathMarcos de Niza, French Franciscan explorer
March 25th, 1541 (March 25 1541)BirthFrancesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (died in 1587)
March 25th, 1539 (March 25 1539)BirthChristopher Clavius, German mathematician (died in 1612)
March 25th, 1479 (March 25 1479)BirthVasili III, Grand Prince of Moscow (died in 1533)
March 25th, 1458 (March 25 1458)DeathMarques de Santillana, Spanish poet (born in 1398)
March 25th, 1409 (March 25 1409)EventThe Council of Pisa opens.
March 25th, 1347 (March 25 1347)BirthCatherine of Siena, Italian saint (died in 1380)
March 25th, 1345 (March 25 1345)BirthBlanche of Lancaster, wife of John of Gaunt (died in 1369)
March 25th, 1345 (March 25 1345)DeathHenry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, English politician (born in 1281)
March 25th, 1306 (March 25 1306)EventRobert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland.
March 25th, 1297 (March 25 1297)BirthAndronicus III Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (died in 1341)
March 25th, 1297 (March 25 1297)BirthArnost of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague (died in 1364)
March 25th, 1259 (March 25 1259)BirthAndronikos II Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor (died in 1332)
March 25th, 1252 (March 25 1252)BirthConradin, Duke of Swabia (died in 1268)
March 25th, 1223 (March 25 1223)DeathAfonso II of Portugal (born in 1185)
March 25th, 1199 (March 25 1199)EventRichard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
March 25th, 0752 (March 25 0752)DeathPope-elect Stephen, Italian priest and elected successor to Pope Zachary

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